Cytomegalovirus infection accelerates epigenetic aging.
L Kananen, T Nevalainen, J Jylhävä, S Marttila, A Hervonen, M Jylhä, M Hurme. Exp Gerontol 2015 Oct 17 [Epub ahead of print].
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm) have a central role in the regulation of gene expression and thereby in cellular differentiation and tissue homeostasis. It has recently been shown that aging is associated with profound changes in DNAm. Several of these methylation changes take place in a clock-like fashion, i.e. correlating with the calendar age of an individual. Thus, the epigenetic clock based on these kind of DNAm changes could provide a new biomarker for human aging process, i.e. being able to separate the calendar and biological age. Information about the correlation of the time indicated by this clock to the various aspects of immunosenescence is still missing. As chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is probably one of the major driving forces of immunosenescence, we now have analyzed the correlation of CMV seropositivity with the epigenetic age in the Vitality 90 + cohort 1920 (122 nonagenarians and 21 young controls, CMV seropositivity rates 95% and 57%, respectively). The data showed that CMV seropositivity was associated with a higher epigenetic age in both of these age groups (median 26.5 vs. 24.0 (p < 0.02, Mann–Whitney U -test) in the young controls and 76.0 vs. 70.0 (p < 0.01) in the nonagenarians). Thus, these data provide a new aspect to the CMV associated pathological processes.
More about CMV and Aging
Meanwhile, AS USUAL, the anti-smokers are committing scientific fraud by ignoring the role of CMV infection in order to exploit the circumstance that smokers are more likely to have been infected by it, beginning in childhood. Continue reading
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity decreases B cell responses to the influenza vaccine.
Vaccine. 2015 Feb 7. pii: S0264-410X(15)00128-0. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.071. [Epub ahead of print]
Frasca D1, Diaz A2, Romero M2, Landin AM2, Blomberg BB2
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositivity has been shown to have a negative effect on influenza vaccine-specific antibody responses. In this paper, we confirm and extend these results showing for the first time, a negative association between CMV-seropositivity and B cell predictive biomarkers of optimal vaccine responses. These biomarkers are switched memory B cells and AID in CpG-stimulated B cell cultures measured before vaccination which positively correlate with the serum response to the influenza vaccine. We also found that CMV-seropositivity is associated with increased levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation and these both correlate with lower B cell function. Finally, CMV-seropositivity is associated with decreased percentages of individuals responding to the vaccine in both young and elderly individuals.
Aging; B cell biomarkers; CMV; Influenza vaccine
PMID: 25659271 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
• Influenza vaccination is less effective in CMV-seropositive individuals.
• B cell biomarkers of optimal vaccine responses are reduced by CMV-seropositivity.
• CMV-seropositivity is associated with increased intrinsic inflammation in B cells.
This study is important because anti-smokers claim that smokers are more likely to get flu. But their studies always ignore the role of infection, so they’re exploiting the circumstance that smokers are more likely to have been exposed to CMV, for socioeconomic reasons. In studies that don’t find a difference between smokers and non-smokers, this is presumably because smokers and non-smokers had similar rates of CMV infection. Many studies have shown that cytomegalovirus impairs immunity to influenza.